In Punjab 98% of the online space is irrigated and 72.5% of the online space is irrigated by groundwater, the best in any a part of the world. Even with 5 main flowering rivers, the online space irrigated by floor water is just 26.2%. The beneficiaries of the wealthy cropping depth of 186%, are 65% of enormous farmers possessing greater than 2 ha of land, 17% of small farmers possessing 1 to 2 ha and 19% marginal farmers with lower than 1 ha. The world beneath rice, not a staple meals crop of Punjab, elevated from 6.87 per cent of gross cropped space in 1970 to 36 per cent in 2013, whereas wheat space, a staple crop is buoyant at 40 to 44 per cent of gross cropped space since 1970. West Bengal contributes to 13.26% of India’s rice manufacturing adopted by Punjab contributing to 11.85% of rice manufacturing, Haryana 4%. The rice productiveness in Punjab (39.74 quintals per ha), Haryana (30.71 quintals per ha) are additionally probably the most spectacular. Rice crop has thus skilled the shift in space and manufacturing in each Punjab and Haryana.
In Punjab, from 1970 to 2013, rice space elevated by 26 % per 12 months (from 0.23 ml ha to 2.82 ml ha), whereas wheat space elevated by 3.56 % per 12 months (1.39 ml ha to three.52 m1 ha). Presently 45% of internet sown space is beneath wheat and 36% is beneath rice and completely 83% is beneath meals grains. Punjab is contributing 35-40 per cent of rice and 40 to 75 per cent of wheat to the central pool on the social value of unsustainable groundwater extraction. With a internet dynamic floor water useful resource of 21.443 MCM, and internet draft of 31.162 MCM, the overdraft is 9.719 MCM with a draft – recharge of 145 per cent. Punjab is “over- exploited” and reached unsustainable ranges of groundwater use solely as a consequence of cultivation of water intensive rice crop. With the end result, 80 % of blocks are in Darkish class regardless of Punjab possessing 5 flowing rivers. With 75 tractors per 1000 ha, 152 APMCs and full rice manufacturing procured at Minimal Help Value (MSP) and 80% of wheat manufacturing procured at MSP in Punjab, the farmers benefit from the most patronage. Virtually 100% of villages are linked with metalled roads. Thus, with 100 % procurement, Punjab rice contributes 24%, wheat contributes 40% to central pool.
On the flip aspect, Punjab contributing in direction of inexperienced revolution additionally contributed considerably to groundwater overexploitation. This phenomenon has additionally unfold to completely different States for various crops in the end. Accordingly, India’s inexperienced revolution can be known as India’s groundwater over exploitation revolution. And cultivation of rice in Punjab, Haryana since 1970, by pumping the dear groundwater useful resource has led to drastic overexploitation of the aquifers regardless of the presence of 5 rivers. This phenomenon has been documented by NASA’s Goddard House Flight Centre Scientific Visualization Studio utilizing the Gravity Restoration and Local weather Experiment (GRACE) satellite tv for pc from 2002 to 2008, the place groundwater in Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan has fallen by greater than 88-million-acre toes. It’s estimated that this quantity is equal to a few instances the amount of water current within the Lake Mead, the biggest reservoir within the USA, 180 kms lengthy, 162 meters deep, with 640 sq. kms of space holding 26.12-million-acre toes of water.
As Punjab farmers responded tremendously to provision of MSP, this resulted in rice monoculture depleting the groundwater quick. Rice is probably the most inefficient crop cultivated with scarce pumped groundwater of 5000 litres of water to provide one kg of rice. As Agricultural Economist Prof SS Johl has been cautioning since many years, Punjab farmers want to appreciate the
comparatively profitability of a number of horticulture crops in contrast with rice in relation to water utilized. Punjab farmers are proximal to the Delhi metropolis which is properly related by all modes, can domesticate all kinds of greens, fruits, flowers and profit from the efficient demand in Delhi markets. As an illustration, at the moment Delhi is getting bananas from far off Jalgaon in Maharashtra, Trivandrum in Kerala and Ananthapur in AP, incurring enormous transport prices. Thus, banana will be initially cultivated in Punjab as an alternative of rice. Later Punjab farmers might shift to different greens, fruits, flowers and perennial horticulture crops.
Punjab farmers can be taught from expertise of farmers from different States who domesticate excessive water low worth crops – Capsicum, Knol Khol, Cabbage, Potato, Tomato, Rose, Ginger, Grapes in addition to an array of numerous low water excessive worth crops corresponding to Mulberry, Ridge Gourd, Ash gourd, Marigold, Carrot, Chrysanthemum, Palak, Beans, Brinjal, Cucumber, Onion, Coriander, Purple Gram Vegetable, Lab Kohl Bean, Chilli, Amaranthus, Dill. Farmers from Karnataka, utilizing 1/Four th of the groundwater utilized by Punjab farmers are realizing greater gross returns of Rs 15 lakhs per farm, internet returns of Rs 5 lakhs per farm, and internet returns per acre of Rs 1 lakh, and internet returns per capita of Rs 80000 per 12 months. This reveals that farmers in Punjab have better scope and alternative to reinforce their internet returns per farm, per acre in addition to per farmer in the event that they make a honest try to diversify their crop sample particularly shifting from rice to horticulture crops.
The farmers of Punjab have a properly assured market in proximity – Delhi metropolis properly related to market greens, fruits, flowers. Punjab farmers may even be taught from the expertise of banana farmers from Jalgaon in Maharashtra, Trivandrum in Kerala and Ananthapur who’re sending tonnes of Banana to Delhi incurring enormous transport prices. This benefit has been utilized by farmers of Kolar and Chitradurga districts in Karnataka who’re cultivating greens flowers and fruits for supplying to Bangalore and Chennai. However who’s to bell the cat?
Views expressed above are the creator’s personal.
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